Thursday, September 03, 2009

Bloom's Taxonomy

COGNITIVE LEARNING, one of the three domains from Bloom's Taxonomy, emphasizes intellectual outcomes. Benjamin Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain. The six levels are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

The Six Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy

Knowledge is a starting point that includes both the acquisition of information and the ability to recall information when needed.

Comprehension is the basic level of understanding. It involves the ability to know what is being communicated in order to make use of the information.

Application is the ability to use a learned skill in a new situation.

Analysis is the ability to break content into components in order to identify parts, see relationships among them, and recognize organizational principles.

Synthesis is the ability to combine existing elements in order to create something original.
Evaluation is the ability to make a judgement about the value of something by using a standard.

By Tammy Goodwater, San Diego State University


In the 1990's, a former student of Bloom, Lorin Anderson, revised Bloom's Taxonomy and published this- Bloom's Revised Taxonomy in 2001. Key to this is the use of verbs rather than nouns for each of the categories and a rearrangement of the sequence within the taxonomy. They are arranged below in increasing order, from low to high.

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Sub Categories

Each of the categories or taxonomic elements has a number of key verbs associated with it

Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)

Remembering - Recognising, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding

Understanding - Interpreting, Summarising, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying

Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing

Analysing - Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating

Evaluating - Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring

Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making

By Andrew Churches

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