Friday, September 11, 2009

Writing The Article Summary


  1. Give the title of the article and name of the author (s) and provide a full citation of the article. Identify the author by profession or importance.

  2. Identify the purpose of the article

  3. Tell what the research question is and explain why it is interesting and important. Give your overall impression.

  4. It is important in introductory paragraph include a thesis statement which identifies the main points you will be discussing in the body (analysis) of the review.

Body (Analysis)

  1. Briefly describe methods, design of the study, how many subjects were involved, what they did, the variables, what was measured, and where the reserach was conducted.

  2. Describe the results/what was found

  3. Discuss the strength and the usefulness of the article/study

  4. Discuss the weaknesses, limitations, or problems of the article/study

  5. Discuss what you learned from the article and if you recommend it to other students

  6. Support your analysis with qoutations and/or specific examples throughout.


  1. Summarize the previous discussion

  2. Make a final judgement on the value of the article

  3. State what you learned from the article

  4. Comment on the future or implications of the research.

* Lecture notes for EDC 7720

Thursday, September 03, 2009

Bloom's Taxonomy

COGNITIVE LEARNING, one of the three domains from Bloom's Taxonomy, emphasizes intellectual outcomes. Benjamin Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain. The six levels are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

The Six Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy

Knowledge is a starting point that includes both the acquisition of information and the ability to recall information when needed.

Comprehension is the basic level of understanding. It involves the ability to know what is being communicated in order to make use of the information.

Application is the ability to use a learned skill in a new situation.

Analysis is the ability to break content into components in order to identify parts, see relationships among them, and recognize organizational principles.

Synthesis is the ability to combine existing elements in order to create something original.
Evaluation is the ability to make a judgement about the value of something by using a standard.

By Tammy Goodwater, San Diego State University


In the 1990's, a former student of Bloom, Lorin Anderson, revised Bloom's Taxonomy and published this- Bloom's Revised Taxonomy in 2001. Key to this is the use of verbs rather than nouns for each of the categories and a rearrangement of the sequence within the taxonomy. They are arranged below in increasing order, from low to high.

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Sub Categories

Each of the categories or taxonomic elements has a number of key verbs associated with it

Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)

Remembering - Recognising, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding

Understanding - Interpreting, Summarising, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying

Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing

Analysing - Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating

Evaluating - Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring

Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making

By Andrew Churches